The staff function in human relations. However, neither of these extremes is optimal. Theory X Theory X managers tend to take a pessimistic view of their people, and assume that they are naturally unmotivated and dislike work.
But the greater the likelihood their response will be seen to be inadequate. Under Theory X the firm relies on money and benefits to satisfy employees' lower needs, and once those needs are satisfied the source of motivation is lost.
Against these must be weighed the costs of additional staff and facility use. The first is that people are socialized to subordinating their personal goals to those of the organization. When budgets expand and production doesn't, check to see if overhead has gone up.
How American management can Meet the Japanese Challenge'. McGregor called this Theory Y.
Recall from Chapter 3 that stakeholders may not be a powerholder, i. We will use this basic chart, making it more and more complex, to illustrate what is involved in getting something done in different models of the school.
So are departmentalized schools or any organization where different tasks are given, by rule or by tradition, to different people. Theory X Theory X assumes that the average person: Theory Y 'participative management' style Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
Like a bureau for clothes, a bureaucratic model sees the organization as compartmentalized; more complex than a simple input-out systems model. Theory Y makes the following general assumptions: This encourages a more collaborative relationship between managers and their team members.
People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment. Theory X management styles in fact hinder the satisfaction of higher-level needs. This is normally the role of the Change Manager; to implement the change that no-one asked for or wants.
Appraisals are regular but, unlike in Theory X organizations, they are used to encourage open communication rather than control staff.
Journal of Social Issues, 4 3People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment.
Individuals can perform simple and amazingly varied tasks. The hard approach relies on coercion, implicit threats, close supervision, and tight controls, essentially an environment of command and control. This will suffice for this chapter, although we will also have reason in later chapters to distinguish between different images of different models.
Historically, this conception precedes the others in organization theory. We will suggest that a different kind of productive organization might be able to handle the difficulties in present school organization. McGregor recognized that some people may not have reached the level of maturity assumed by Theory Y and therefore may need tighter controls that can be relaxed as the employee develops.
Avoiding confrontation unless you are genuinely being bullied, which is a different matter and delivering results are the key tactics. For example, a principal may be charged with promoting the education, generally speaking, of the students in his or her school.
They also believe that employees have the desire to be creative at their work place and become forward looking. Here the school is conceived as a sort of computer aimed at maximizing goals. Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.
Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals. The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else.
The Implementation Models Most people think of reform as a top-down process. It's interesting that Ouchi chose to name his model 'Theory Z', which apart from anything else tends to give the impression that it's a Mcgregor idea. Scientific measurement and psychology.
Theory X and Theory Y represent two sets of assumptions about human nature and human behavior that are relevant to the practice of management.
Theory X represents a negative view of human nature that assumes individuals generally dislike work, are irresponsible, and require close supervision to do. Unlike in Theory X, Douglas McGregor starts from the assumption in Theory Y that people have different needs.
Theory Y assumes that people are inherently happy to work, they want to exert themselves and they are motivated to pursue objectives. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences MayVol. 3, No. 5 ISSN: The Human Side of Enterprise, Annotated Edition [Douglas McGregor] on mobile-concrete-batching-plant.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
“What are your assumptions (implicit as well as explicit) about the most effective way to manage people?” So began Douglas McGregor in this management classic. It was a seemingly simple question he asked. Key Points. The concept of Theory X and Theory Y was developed by social psychologist Douglas McGregor.
It describes two contrasting sets of assumptions that managers make about their people. Nov 30, · Douglas McGregor ( –) was a famous management professor in the field of personal development and motivational theory.
He is best known for his development of the Theory X and Theory Y, a leadership theory on two different leadership mobile-concrete-batching-plant.coms:Douglas mcgregor theory x